study of human growth is known as auxology. Growth
and height have long been recognized as a measure of
the health and wellness of individuals, hence part
of the reasoning for the use of growth charts.
Height extremes of either excessive tallness or
shortness can cause social exclusion and
discrimination. An individual’s height can be
largely a part of what social clique, or group that
they fall in to. This is usually associated with
pre-teens and teenagers. There is also a strong
correlation between subnormal stature and
are two factors in determining the human height,
genetics and environmental factors. Genetic factors
cannot be altered, while environmental factors can.
These include diet or nutrition, exercise, fitness,
pollution exposure, sleep patterns, climate, and
even happiness, which is associated with an
individual’s psychological well-being.
aspect is the human growth hormone that can also
affect the growth and final height. In adolescents,
the hormone secretion occurs in highest amount
during sleep and it can be enhanced by exercise. If
not enough growth hormone is secreted by the
pituitary gland, then the child needs medical
attention to find out if there is a deficiency in
growth hormone and appropriate treatment will be
has designed a special formulation called GHR
(Growth Hormone Releaser). It is a combination of
amino acids and colostrum that are important for the
growth and development of children. Amino acids are
building blocks of proteins and GHR contains
arginine, ornithine, histidine and tryptophan.
Calcium, an essential mineral for healthy bones and
teeth, is also included in this formulation.
Arginine is a non-essential amino acid, meaning
that it can be manufactured by the human body. It is
commonly found in dairy, meat and poultry, fish,
nuts and chocolate. Arginine plays an important role
in cell division, the healing of wounds, removing
ammonia from the body, immune function, and the
release of several hormones, including growth
hormone and insulin.
Of the amino acids, arginine is the most potent
growth hormone secretagogue in human. It potentiates
the growth hormone response to growth hormone
releasing hormone (GHRH), exerts a weaker prolactin-releasing
effect, stimulates insulin and glucagons, and
induces a biphasic glucose variation.
J., Valetto M.R. et al studied the effects of the
infusion of several amino acids on basal and GHRH-stimulated
growth hormone secretion and on prolactin, insulin
and glucose levels and compared with those of
arginine in 43 children with normal short stature.
Arginine increased basal and GHRH-stimulated growth
hormone levels. High dose of arginine increased both
prolactin and insulin levels more than low dose of
arginine, while glucose levels showed a similar
increase followed by a similar decrease. This study
shows that arginine has the highest stimulatory
effect on pituitary and pancreatic hormones in
Germany, a study was carried out to determine how
arginine stimulated growth hormone secretion. It was
found that the stimulatory effects of arginine were
mediated by suppression of the secretion of
endogenous somatostatin, which is also known as
growth hormone inhibiting hormone.
Ornithine is an amino acid manufactured by the
body when arginine is metabolised during the
production of urea. Therefore, ornithine is a
central part of the urea cycle, which allows for the
disposal of excess nitrogen. With its main use in
arginine biosynthesis, ornithine acts as an
intermediate in metabolic processes.
ornithine infusion trial was performed in fifty-four
children with constitutional short stature. It
induced an elevated level of growth hormone and a
similar rise of cortisol levels. This trial
suggested that ornithine infusion allowed
simultaneous study of the pituitary secretions in
children with delayed growth. And this finding also
showed that ornithine might have an influence on the
function of pituitary gland and growth hormone
levels in short children.
Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural
amino acids present in proteins. In humans,
histidine is considered as a semi-essential amino
acid because adults generally produce adequate
amounts but children may not. It is also a precursor
of histamine, a compound released by immune system
cells during an allergic reaction.
researchers from Department of Pediatrics at Cornell
University Medical College investigated the genetic
defects in the control of growth hormone secretion.
The growth hormone deficiency (GHD) causes short
stature and metabolic derangements. They found that
GHD is more commonly caused by recessive or dominant
mutations of the growth hormone gene. In a large
kindred with dominant GHD they found a heterozygous
mutation replacing of arginine with histidine.
Therefore, these researchers speculated that the
introduced histidine might interfere with the
interactions necessary for correct growth hormone
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid in the
human diet and is found particularly plentiful in
chocolate, oats, bananas, mangoes, dried dates,
dairy, red meat, eggs, fish, poultry, sesame,
chickpeas, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds and
peanuts. Beside functioning in protein biosynthesis
like the rest of the amino acids, tryptophan also
acts as a biochemical precursor for serotonin, a
neurotransmitter that plays important roles in
sleep, emotional moods, pain control and other body
functions. Niacin, vitamin B3, is also synthesized
D.S et al studied the effect of intravenous
tryptophan on the central nervous system
serotonergic function in ten healthy subjects. The
effects of growth hormone, prolactin and mood were
assessed. In all ten subjects, the tryptophan
infusion induced a significant increase in growth
hormone concentration and robust increases in
prolactin. The subjects reported feeling
significantly higher, mellow and drowsy following
the tryptophan infusion in comparison to placebo.
findings indicate an important role for serotonin in
growth hormone and prolactin secretion, as well as
in mood regulation. Hence, growing children taking
tryptophan may gain the benefits of enhanced hormone
secretion and improved their mood, as well as other
Colostrum is one of the nature’s nutrient-dense
foods. It is a form of pre-milk fluid produced by
the mammary glands of the cows during the first 48
hours after giving birth. It contains high levels of
antibodies called “secretory immunoglobulins” that
protect the newborns from harmful viruses and
bacteria. Colostrum is also a rich source of growth
factor, such as Insulin-like Growth Factor-1
(IGF-1), a polypeptide protein hormone that plays an
important role in childhood growth and continues to
have anabolic effects in adults. IGF-1 is essential
for regulating cell growth and development, as well
as cellular DNA synthesis.
Sweden, the measurements of serum levels of IGFs
were carried out in 39 constitutionally short
children and adolescents and compared with those of
27 age-matched normal subjects. The mean serum
levels of IGF-1 were found to be lower in short
children compared to normal, pre-pubertal children.
The results suggest that growth retardation in short
children involves IGF-1 deficiency resulting from
decreased IGF-1 synthesis and its reduced
bioavailability. Therefore, short children may
benefit from supplementing colostrum that naturally
Calcium is the most abundant, essential mineral
in the human body. This mineral is needed to form
bones and teeth and is also required for blood
clotting, blood pressure regulation, transmission of
signals in nerve cells, and muscle contraction.
Denmark, a randomised, double-blinded,
placebo-controlled study was undertaken to evaluate
the effect of calcium supplementation on bone
mineral accumulation. Sixty girls were selected to
receive calcium or placebo for 1 year. Whole-body
bone mineral content, bone area, bone mineral
density, bone mineral content adjusted for bone
area, height and weight (or size adjusted bone
mineral content) were measured before and after the
result showed modest effect on calcium
supplementation on bone mineral density and size
adjusted bone mineral content. Hence it is helpful
for growing children to supplement with calcium.
summary, GHR (Growth Hormone Releaser) is an amino
acid formulation that was designed to stimulate the
production of growth hormones in the body. GHR also
contains calcium, and colostrum that is rich in
growth factors. It is important for parents to help
their children to obtain proper nutritious diet,
exercise more (or be more active), have a good sleep
pattern and maintain a happy mood. GHR is a useful
supplement for short children, especially before and
during their puberty period.
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suppressing endogenous somatostatin secretion. J
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Volta C., Cardimale G., Baffoni C., Pasquino A.M.,
Bernasconi S., Bartolotta E., Mucci M., Ghigo
E.,Effects of phenylalanine, histidine, and leucine
on basal and GHRH-stimulated GH secretion and on PRL,
insulin, and glucose levels in short children.
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Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Sep-Oct; 9(5): 523-31.
Charney D.S., Heninger G.R., Reinhard J.F. Jr.,
Sternberg D.E., Hafstead KM., The effect of
intravenous L-tryptophan on prolactin and growth
hormone and mood in healthy subjects.
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corticotrophic pituitary secretions during ornithine
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