Certified organic cold pressed FLAXSEED OIL
Flaxseed, also known as linseed in some countries, is a good
source of dietary fibre, fatty acids and lignans. Its oil is
rich in essential fatty acids, Omega-3, 6 and 9, which are
important for maintaining optimum health. They have
anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anti-arrhythmic,
hypolipidemic and vasodilatory properties. These beneficial
effects have been shown in the secondary prevention of coronary
heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease,
rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is
found abundantly in flaxseed oil. It desaturates and elongates
in the human body to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and by itself may have beneficial
effects in health and in the control of chronic diseases.
Short term intervention studies have shown that diets rich in
polyunsaturated fats have hypotensive properties. Long term
effects of dietary fat on blood pressure have been studied in
399 free-living male subjects. The result showed an increase in
ALA was associated with a decrease in systolic, diastolic and
composite mean arterial blood pressure. Hence dietary
manipulation with omega-3 fatty acids may be helpful in the
prevention of hypertension.
blind study was done by Singer P et al to determine the effects
of essential fatty acids on blood pressure, serum lipids,
lipoproteins and the formation of eicosanoid precursors in
patients with mild essential hypertension. Forty-four male
patients with mild hypertension were allocated to put on diets
supplemented with flaxseed oil.
The subjects ingesting the flaxseed oil-rich diet showed an
increase of ALA in serum lipids. In addition to total
cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio,
serum triglycerides and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase
activity were significantly depressed. Hence flaxseed oil that
is rich in Alpha-linolenic acid has cholesterol-lowering effect.
This hypocholesterolemic effect has been confirmed by another
Canadian research which was studied in eight normolipidic men.
The flaxseed oil diet was effective in lowering total and
lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein concentrations in
plasma, indicating that dietary ALA was hypocholesterolemic.
Therefore flaxseed oil may have beneficial effects for those
with high cholesterol and cardiovascular problems such as heart
study on ALA intake reduces the risk of coronary heart disease
was reviewed Mozaffarian D. ALA may reduce cardiovascular risk
through a variety of biologic mechanisms, including platelet
function, inflammation, endothelial cell function, arterial
compliance and arrhythmia. Observational studies suggest that
ALA intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease.
Presently the evidence favours recommendations for modest
dietary consumption of ALA for the primary and secondary
prevention of coronary heart disease.
Animal studies have shown that diet enriched with omega-3 fatty
acid, especially ALA was preventing ventricular fibrillation,
the chief mechanism of cardiac death. It was also demonstrated
that ALA was the main fatty acid lowering platelet aggregation,
an important step in thrombosis, such as non-fatal myocardial
infarction and stroke.
study was done to assess the effect of flaxseed oil diet in the
rat renal ablation model. Renal ALA and EPA were increased in
the flaxseed oil group, and the total omega-3 fatty acids
increased twofold to threefold. It was shown that dietary
flaxseed oil attenuated the decline in renal function and
reduced glomerular injury with favourable effects on blood
pressure, plasma lipids and urinary prostaglandins.
Study of ALA in lupus nephritis patients was performed after it
was found beneficial in lupus mouse. Patients were given various
amount of flaxseed daily sequentially for four week intervals.
Compliance, disease activity, plasma lipids, PAF-induced
platelet aggregation, renal function and serum immunology were
There was a significant increase of serum ALA which indicated
good compliance. Total and LDL cholesterol and blood viscosity
were significantly reduced. PAF-induced platelet aggregation was
inhibited. It was concluded that flaxseed was well tolerated and
conferred benefit in terms of renal function as well as
inflammatory and atherogenic mechanisms important in the
pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.
In an Indian perspective, dietary fats are required to meet
nutritional needs and prevent the risk of atherosclerosis. Long
term high intake of ALA reduces the risk of coronary heart
disease. Metabolic studies were conducted in Indian subjects to
investigate the effects of using ALA rich oils on plasma lipids,
essential fatty acid status and platelet aggregation. The
results showed ALA produced anti-atherogenic effects. Regular
consumption of plant foods which are good sources of ALA can
contribute to improving omega-3 status.
Omega-3 fatty acids are known to influence inflammatory
responses in the body. However its effects on structures such as
the intestinal tract were barely understood. A pilot study was
conducted into the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on
rat intestinal structure and microbe populations. Wistar rats
were randomly divided into two groups, control and experimental.
The rats in control group were given feeds containing ALA from
age 9-11 weeks until 38-40 weeks.
The plasma phospholipids of the control group contained greater
total omega-3 fatty acid. It was found that increased
proportions of haemolytic bacteria in ileum and increased
numbers of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in the caecum
of the experimental group. It was established that omega-3 fatty
acid deficiency does affect rat intestinal structure and microbe
populations. Results suggest that a deficiency of omega-3 fatty
acid can lead to increased cell proliferation, inflammation and
microbe overgrowth in the normal intestinal tract.
Omega-3 fatty acids have been extensively studied in the brain.
ALA deficiency was demonstrated to alter the structure and
function of membranes by altering the course of brain
development, perturbing the composition and physiochemical
properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrosytes
and astrocytes. This leads to physiochemical modifications,
induces biochemical and physiological perturbations and results
in neurosensory and behavioural upset.
Recent results have shown that dietary ALA deficiency induces
marked abnormalities in certain cerebral structures, as the
frontal cortex and pituitary gland are severely affected. And
ALA deficiency also decreases the perception of pleasures, by
slightly altering the efficacy of sensory organs and by
affecting certain cerebral structures.
French study investigated the relation between the dietary ALA
deficiency and a simple form of learning, habituation, in mice.
The results suggest that habituation occurs more slowly in mice
fed a diet deficient in ALA. Hence, it is important to
supplement ALA during the period of learning especially in
Animal studies report a possible protective role for ALA against
breast cancer. Fristsche KL and Johnston PV studied the effect
of dietary omega-3 fatty acid on mammary tumour growth and
metastasis. Weanling female mice were fed flaxseed oil diet for
3-8 weeks prior to receiving injections of mammary tumour cell
types. Tumour growth was assessed by monitoring mean tumour
diameter and weight upon removal.
Feeding flaxseed oil reduced the growth of mammary tumours,
enhanced incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into tumours and
reduced tumour prostaglandin E production. The result suggested
an inhibitory effect of dietary linolenic acid on mammary tumour
growth and metastasis.
Another study determined whether supplementation with flaxseed
oil beginning 13 weeks after carcinogen administration would
reduce the size of established mammary tumours and appearance of
new tumours in rats. Flaxseed oil is found more effective at the
stage when tumours have already been established.
Norway research found out that deficiency of ALA has been
observed in patients with skin problems. The clinical symptoms
include hemorrhagic dermatitis, hemorrhagic folliculitis, skin
atrophy and scaly dermatitis. Supplementation of Omega-3 fatty
acid normalized these symptoms. Hence, this essential fatty acid
has an important role in the maintenance of the skin.
In vitro experiments using cultured murine melanoma cells showed
that melanin production was inhibited most effectively by ALA,
followed by linoleic acid and oleic acid, which are fatty acids
found in flaxseed oil.
ALA was studied to evaluate its effects on ultraviolet-induced
hyperpigmentation of the skin of brownish guinea pigs. The
result showed ALA accelerated the turnover of the stratum
corneum, which plays an important role in the removal of melanin
pigment from the epidermis. Therefore, flaxseed oil containing
ALA has pigment-lightening effects.
Japanese research examined the effect of ALA on histamine
release in basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells. It was found
that the content of histamine in ALA-treated cells was
remarkably lower than that of untreated cells. Accordingly, the
net and percentage of histamine release stimulated by antigen
was also markedly decreased in the ALA-treated cells. Results
suggest that the anti-allergic effect of ALA may be caused by
the decrease in histamine content or by inhibition of the
release of chemical mediator resulting from the changes in the
fatty acid composition. Hence this essential omega-3 fatty acid
may be beneficial for allergy reactions such as hayfever, hives,
asthma and sinusitis.
The association between intake of omega-3 fatty acid and risk of
community-acquired pneumonia (lung infection) was examined in
38,378 US male health professionals aged 44-79 years. Their
medical and lifestyle information were updated through
questionnaires and blinded medical record review of chest
radiographs were used to determine pneumonia.
During 10 years of follow-up, there were 441 new cases of
nonfatal pneumonia. Pneumonia risk was found to be reduced by
31% for every 1 gram/day increase in ALA intake. It was
concluded that higher intakes of ALA may be reduce the risk of
Maternal essential fatty acid status declines during pregnancy.
The effect of ALA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal
and neonatal polyunsaturated fatty acid status and pregnancy
outcome was studied in Netherland. Pregnant women were
supplemented with ALA and Linoleic Acid (LA), the ultimate
precursors of DHA and AA, from week 14 of gestation until
ALA and LA supplementation significantly increased EPA and DHA
concentrations and lowered neonatal AA status. It is suggested
that functional DHA status improves with ALA and LA
supplementation. Therefore supplementing flaxseed oil may be
beneficial for improving DHA status during pregnancy.
In summary, flaxseed oil is a rich source of ALA, omega-3 fatty
acid that is readily absorbed from the intestine into the
bloodstream. It has hypotensive, anti-atherogenic,
hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and
pigment-lightening properties. A deficiency in ALA may induce
problems in intestines, brain, nerve and skin. ALA may improve
DHA status during pregnancy and play an important role on
learning. It also has been shown to reduce the growth of tumours
and the risk of coronary heart disease and pneumonia.